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Sunday, 7 August 2016


Trachoma is the world’s leading cause of preventable blindness of infectious origin. Caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, trachoma is easily spread through direct personal contact, shared towels and cloths, and flies that have come in contact with the eyes or nose of an infected person. If left untreated, repeated trachoma infections can cause severe scarring of the inside of the eyelid and can cause the eyelashes to scratch the cornea (trichiasis). In addition to causing pain, trichiasis permanently damages the cornea and can lead to irreversible blindness.

Trachoma is caused by repeated conjunctival infection with C trachomatis. Important individual-level risk factors for active trachoma include
1. having siblings with active disease,
2. having a dirty face, and
3. crowded sleeping arrangements.
At the community level, adequate water access for personal hygiene, sanitation, and fly control determine the risk of endemic trachoma.


The World Health Organization recommends a simplified grading system for trachoma. The Simplified WHO Grading System is summarized below:
  • Trachomatous inflammation, follicular (TF)—Five or more follicles of >0.5 mm on the upper tarsal conjunctiva
  • Trachomatous inflammation, intense (TI)—Papillary hypertrophy and inflammatory thickening of the upper tarsal conjunctiva obscuring more than half the deep tarsal vessels
  • Trachomatous scarring (TS)—Presence of scarring in tarsal conjunctiva.
  • Trachomatous trichiasis (TT)—At least one ingrown eyelash touching the globe, or evidence of epilation (eyelash removal)
  • Corneal opacity (CO)—Corneal opacity blurring part of the pupil margin

Active trachoma is characterized by a mucopurulent keratoconjunctivitis. The conjunctival surface of the upper eyelid shows a follicular and inflammatory response. The cornea may have limbal follicles, superior neovascularization (pannus), and punctate keratitis. Infection with C trachomatis concurrently occurs in other extraocular mucous membranes, commonly the nasopharynx, leading to a nasal discharge.

Follicular trachoma
Trachomatous inflammation, follicular (TF), is the Trachomatous inflammation, follicular (TF), is the presence of 5 or more follicles (each at least 0.5 mm in diameter) on the central part of the upper tarsal conjunctiva.Follicular trachoma indicates active disease.This form is most commonly found in children, with a peak prevalence in those aged 3-5 years. The prevalence rapidly decreases in school-aged children as they leave the pool of re-infection (i.e. their family childcare group).
Follicles are germinal centers that primarily consist of lymphocytes and monocytes.The presence and involution of follicles at the limbus (corneoscleral border) give rise to the pathognomonic lesion of past active trachoma.

Intense inflammatory trachoma
Trachomatous inflammation, intense (TI) is pronoun Trachomatous inflammation, intense (TI) is pronounced inflammatory thickening of the upper tarsal conjunctiva that obscures more than one half the normal deep tarsal vessels.Intense inflammatory trachoma is defined as pronounced inflammatory thickening of the upper tarsal conjunctiva that obscures more than one half of the normal deep tarsal vessels.The cause is an intense inflammatory response. Like follicular trachoma, intense inflammatory trachoma indicates active disease.The normally thin tarsal conjunctiva develops a velvety thickening.Papillae are visible under slit lamp examination.Intense inflammatory trachoma indicates an increased potential for significant conjunctival scarring and, hence, a higher ultimate risk of blinding disease.Surveying the prevalence of intense inflammatory trachoma in children can help in predicting the risk of future blinding trachoma in that cohort of children.

Trachomatous scarring
Trachomatous conjunctival scarring (TS) is the pre Trachomatous conjunctival scarring (TS) is the presence of easily visible scars in the tarsal conjunctiva.Trachomatous scarring indicates past inflammatory disease and a risk of future trichiasis. The more severe the scarring, the higher the risk of subsequent trichiasis.This form may be associated with the development of dry eye syndrome, but chronic, low-grade bacterial conjunctivitis and dacryocystitis may also lead to a weeping eye.

Trachomatous Trichiasis
Trichiasis is defined as at least 1 eyelash rubs on the eyeball or evidence of recent removal of in-turned eyelashes.This is a potentially blinding lesion that can lead to corneal opacification.Trichiasis is due to subconjunctival fibrosis over the tarsal plate that leads to lid distortion.Some vision can be restored with the successful correction of trichiasis.

Corneal opacity
Corneal opacity is defined as easily visible corneal opacity over the pupil that is so dense that it blurs at least part of the pupillary margin when it is viewed through the opacity.Corneal opacity or scarring reflects the prevalence of vision loss and blindness resulting from trachoma.This condition includes pannus, epithelial vascularization, and infiltration only if it involves the central cornea.

The key to the treatment of trachoma is the SAFE strategy developed by the WHO. The surgical ("S") component of this strategy is described in Surgical Care . Antibiotics ("A"), facial cleanliness ("F"), and environmental improvement ("E") are described in this section.

Antibiotic therapy

The WHO recommends 2 antibiotics for trachoma control: oral azithromycin and tetracycline eye ointment. Azithromycin eye drops have also been shown to be very effective.Azithromycin is better than tetracycline, but it is more expensive.National trachoma control programs in a number of countries are fortunate to be beneficiaries of a philanthropic donation of azithromycin.

Azithromycin is the drug of choice because it is easy to administer as a single oral dose. Its administration can be directly observed. Therefore, compliance is higher than with tetracycline and can actually be measured, whereas, with the home administration of tetracycline, the level of compliance is unknown.Azithromycin has high efficacy and a low incidence of adverse effects. When adverse effects occur, they are usually mild; gastrointestinal upset and rash are the most common adverse events.Infection with C trachomatis occurs in the nasopharynx; therefore, patients may reinfect themselves if only topical antibiotics are used.Beneficial secondary effects of azithromycin include its treatment of genital, respiratory, and skin infections.

Facial cleanliness
Epidemiologic studies and community-randomized trials have shown that facial cleanliness in children reduces both the risk and the severity of active trachoma.To be successful, health education and promotion activities must be community based and require considerable effort.

Environmental improvement
General improvements in personal and community hygiene are almost universally associated with a reduction in the prevalence—and eventually the disappearance—of trachoma. This is true not only in Europe, the Americas, and Australia but also in Africa and Asia.Environmental improvement activities are the promotion of improved water supplies and improved household sanitation, particularly methods for safe disposal of human feces.These activities should be prioritized.The flies that transmit trachoma preferentially lay their eggs on human feces lying exposed on the soil. Controlling fly populations by spraying insecticide is difficult. Studies on the impact of fly control on trachoma have had variable results. Trials undertaken to evaluate the installation of pit latrines suggested that the prevalence of trachoma was reduced but failed to demonstrate a statistically significant effect.

Surgical Care
Eyelid surgery to correct trichiasis is important in people with trichiasis, who are at high-risk for trachomatous visual impairment and blindness. Eyelid surgery to correct entropion and/or trichiasis may prevent blindness in individuals at immediate risk.Eyelid rotation limits the progression of corneal scarring. In some cases, it can result in a slight improvement in visual acuity, probably due to restoration of the visual surface and reductions in ocular secretions and blepharospasm.The W.H.O. has produced a training manual on the bilamellar tarsal rotation procedure.Details are as follows:

    This procedure involves a full-thickness incision of the scarred lid and external rotation of the distal margin by using 3 sutures.
    In regions where access to ophthalmologists is limited, well-trained and well-supported health workers can perform bilamellar tarsal rotation.
    Results of randomized clinical trials have confirmed the superiority of this method over other techniques.
    Even after successful surgery, patients remain at risk for recurrence. Therefore, long-term follow-up care and intermittent screening are important after surgery.
    Recurrence rates vary greatly between surgeons. Ongoing audit is an essential element of trichiasis surgery programs.

PREVENTIONThe World Health Organization has targeted trachoma for elimination by 2020 through an innovative, multi-faceted public health strategy known as S.A.F.E.Surgery to correct the advanced, blinding stage of the disease (trichiasis),Antibiotics to treat active infection,Facial cleanliness and,
Environmental improvements in the areas of water and sanitation to reduce disease transmission.Facial cleanliness and environmental improvement are major components of the SAFE strategy.Many regard the lack of facial cleanliness in children as the key factor for the persistence of trachoma.

The prognosis depends on the severity of the disease at the time of treatment, the appropriateness of the treatment, and the risk of reinfection.Patients in whom early disease is treated appropriately have an excellent prognosis.Severe disease may be stabilized, but the patient's vision may not improve once corneal scarring has developed.Reinfection worsens the prognosis.

Tuesday, 1 March 2016

what to do with Witlow

A whitlow is a painful and highly contagious infection on the fingers caused by the herpes simplex virus. It is also known as herpetic whitlow or paronychia.
There are two types of herpes simplex virus—type 1 and type 2—and both can cause herpetic whitlow. A whitlow can occur when broken skin on your finger comes in direct contact with body fluids infected with the herpes simplex virus. These body fluids may come from you or someone else. The first bout of whitlow is usually the most troublesome, with recurrences usually being lesser in pain and length. Since about 20 to 50% of cases are recurrences, prevention is key


1. Recall if you've had contact with someone who has herpes. Herpes simplex virus is very common and highly contagious.
 HSV -1 commonly affects the face, and often causes cold sores (painful blisters on the lips). HSV-2 tends to cause painful genital blisters.HSV-1 can spread through kissing or oral sex, while
 HSV-2 can spread through skin to skin contact with infected genitals.
Be aware that HSV can have a long dormant period. You may have contracted herpes long ago, but the virus may have stayed dormant in the nerve cells where it resides. Stress and lack of immunity (getting sick) are common triggers for activation of the virus from the dormant phase.

2. Look for early symptoms. In the "prodrome" or early phase of any disease, symptoms indicate the onset of a condition. For whitlow, these symptoms usually appear 2 to 20 days after initial exposure, and include:
-Unusual pain
-Tingling in the area

3. Observe more typical whitlow symptoms in the disease phase.Once the initial prodrome phase has passed, you will see far more specific symptoms that point clearly to whitlow:
-Swelling, redness, and rash, with fluid filled vesicles around the area.
-The vesicles may rupture, and a white, clear, or bloody fluid will come out.
-These vesicles may merge and take on a black/brown color.
-Ulceration, or a break in the skin, may develop later.
-Symptoms can resolve from anywhere from 10 days to 3 weeks

4. Get a formal medical diagnosis. Since whitlow is a more of a clinical diagnosis, the medical staff might not order any additional tests. Instead, the doctor will take your symptoms and medical history — including an HSV diagnosis — into consideration to diagnose whitlow. They may also take a tube of your blood to order a complete blood count (CBC) with a differential (a count of your white blood cells). This will let them see if you have enough immune cells to fight infections, or if you have an underlying immune dysfunction that causes reoccurring infections.
The doctor may want to test for herpes if you haven't been diagnosed with it. They may analyze your blood for herpes antibodies, order a PCR test (for the detection of herpes DNA), and/or order a viral culture (to see if actual herpes virus is growing from your blood).


  1.  Take antiviral medication. If whitlow is diagnosed within 48 hours after the symptoms start, the doctor can prescribe antiviral medication to you.The medicine might be topical (a cream) or oral (pills), but will lessen the severity of the infection and promote quicker healing. Thus, it's crucial that you seek immediate medical advice.Commonly prescribed medications include topical acyclovir 5%, oral acyclovir, oral Famciclovir or valacyclovir.Take the medications as advised by your doctor or pharmacist or nurse consultant.Dosages will be adjusted for children, but the treatments will remain the same.
  2. Take precautions to prevent spreading the infection. Since the virus can spread through contact, your healthcare provider may advise you not to touch others, or even to avoid yourself with the infected finger. Specifically avoid touching body parts that contain fluids or bodily secretions. These include the eyes, mouth, tongue, genitals, ears, and breast.If you wear contacts, don't wear them until the infection has resolved. Touching the contacts, then inserting them into your eyes could infect the eye.
  3. Wrap the infected area. Your healthcare provider may wrap the infected area with a bandage, cloth, or any form of dry wrap with medical tape. You can do this easily at home, too, by buying the bandages or wraps from your local pharmacy. To keep the wrap fresh, change it daily. To be extra safe, your doctor may advise you to both wrap the infected area and wear a glove over it.
  4. Monitor children closely. It can be difficult enough to be conscious of your hands as an adult, but children often find it quite difficult. You don't want them sucking on infected fingers, touching their eyes, or any other areas of the body that contain or carry bodily fluids. Even after wrapping the infected area, watch them closely to make sure everything is as it should be.
  5. Get pain medication if necessary.The doctor may provide or advise you to use over the counter pain medication like Advil, Tylenol, ibuprofen or aspirin. They should ease pain while the infection heals by reducing inflammation to the area. If you saw a doctor within 48 hours of noticing the symptoms, the doctor might not recommend anything beyond pain medication.Children and teenagers with viral infections are advised not to take aspirin. There's a risk of developing a multi-organ fatal condition known as Reye’s syndrome.Seek expert medical advice before taking over the counter pain meds for viral infections.Take all medications as described either by your healthcare provider or on the label. Be careful not to exceed the maximum daily dose.
  6. Ask the doctor to test for bacterial infection.If you try to burst or drain the vesicles on your finger on your own, you give debris and bacteria opportunity to invade. Whitlow is a viral infection, but you can compound the issue with a bacterial infection (this can appear dark, have an odor, and may have a whitish pus discharge).The doctors will order a complete blood count with differential (to detect immune cells or white blood cells) if they suspect bacterial infection.The white blood cells will be high if you have a bacterial infection.They may reorder this test after you've completed your antibiotic course to check for normal levels of white blood cells. This isn't always necessary if symptoms have calmed and they have no further suspicion.

Tuesday, 24 November 2015


     Botanically; they are the fruits grow on the palm tree belonging to the family of Arecaceae, in the genus: Phoenix, and scientifically named as Phoenix dactylifera. The tree is believed to originate in the lands on the banks of Nile and Euphrates Rivers of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. Date palm is now grown extensively for its edible fruits under warmer climates across all the continents.
     Dates ripen in four stages, which are known throughout the world by their Arabic names kimri (unripe), khlal (full-size, crunchy), rutab (ripe, soft), tamr (ripe, sun-dried).
     A date palm cultivar, known as Judean date palm is renowned for its long-lived orthodox seed, which successfully sprouted after accidental storage for 2000 years.This particular seed is presently reputed to be the oldest viable seed but the upper survival time limit of properly stored seeds remains unknown.Fossil records show that the date palm has existed for at least 50 million years.


Constipation: Dates are often categorized as a laxative food. This is why dates are so frequently eaten by people suffering from constipation. In order to achieve the desired laxative effect of dates, you should soak them in water over night. Then, eat the soaked dates in the morning like syrup to get the most optimal results. Dates have high levels of soluble fiber, which is essential in promoting healthy bowel movements and the comfortable passage of food through the intestinal tract, which can relieve symptoms of constipation.

Bone Health and Strength: The significant amounts of minerals found in dates make it a super food for strengthening bones and fighting off painful and debilitating diseases like osteoporosis. Dates contain selenium, manganese, copper, and magnesium, all of which are integral to healthy bone development and strength, particularly as people begin to age and their bones gradually weaken. So, eat your dates and give a boost to your bones!

Intestinal Disorders: The nicotine content in dates is thought to be beneficial for curing many kinds of intestinal disorders. Continuous intake of dates helps to inhibit growth of the pathological organisms and thus, they help stimulate the growth of friendly bacteria in the intestines. In terms of digestive issues, dates contain those insoluble and soluble fibers, as well as many beneficial amino acids which can stimulate the digestion of food and make it more efficient, meaning that more nutrients will be absorbed by the digestive tract and enter your body for proper usage.

Anemia: Dates have a high mineral content, which is beneficial for many different health conditions, but their impressive levels of iron make them a perfect dietary supplement for people suffering from anemia. The high level of iron balances out the inherent lack of iron in anemic patients, increasing energy and strength, while decreasing feelings of fatigue and sluggishness.

Allergies: One of the most interesting facets of dates is the presence of organic sulfur in them. This is not a very common element to find in foods, but it does have a worthwhile amount of health benefits, including the reduction of allergic reactions and seasonal allergies. According to a study done in 2002, organic sulfur compounds can have a positive impact on the amount of suffering people experience from SAR (Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis), which affects approximately 23 million people in the United States alone. Dates are a great way to somewhat stem the effects of those seasonal allergies through its contributions of sulfur to the diet.

Weight Gain: Dates should be included as a  part of a healthy diet. They consist of sugar, proteins and many essential vitamins. If dates are consumed with cucumber paste, you can also keep your weight at a normal, balanced level, rather than over-slimming. One kilogram of dates contains almost 3,000 calories, and the calories in dates are sufficient to meet the daily requirements for a human body. Of course, you should not eat just dates throughout the day. If you are thin and slim and want to increase your weight, or if you are trying to build your muscles to impress some girl, or you have become weak due to a serious medical problem – you need to eat dates!

Energy Booster: Dates are high in natural sugars like glucose, fructose, and sucrose. Therefore, they are the perfect snack for an immediate burst of energy. Many people around the world use dates for a quick afternoon snack when they are feeling lethargic or sluggish.

Nervous System Health: The vitamins present in dates make it an ideal boost to nervous system health and functionality. Potassium is one of the prime ingredients in promoting a healthy and responsive nervous system, and it also improves the speed and alertness of brain activity. Therefore, dates are a wonderful food source for people as they begin to age and their nervous system becomes sluggish or unsupported, as well as for people who want to keep their mind sharp.

Healthy Heart: Dates are quite helpful in keeping your heart healthy. When they are soaked for the night, crushed in the morning and then consumed, they have been shown to have a positive effect on weak hearts. Dates are also a rich source of potassium, which studies have shown to reduce the risk of stroke and other heart related diseases. Furthermore, they are suggested as a healthy and delicious way to reduce the levels of LDL cholesterol in the body, which is a major contributing factor heart attacks, heart disease, and stroke. Therefore, when taken twice a week, dates can seriously improve the overall health of the heart.

Sexual Weakness: Studies have shown that dates are even beneficial for increasing sexual stamina. Soak a handful of dates in fresh goat’s milk over night, then grind them in the same milk with a mixture of cardamom powder and honey. This mixture becomes a very useful tonic for increasing sexual endurance and reducing sterility caused by various sexual disorders. The science behind this phenomenon is largely due to traditional usage which stimulated formal research. In 2006, Bahmanpour studied the effects of date palms and their oil on sexual functioning and found that the high levels of estradiol and flavonoid components of dates are what increase sperm count and motility, as well as promoting increased testes size and weight. So, if you are looking for a masculine boost, eat some dates, because they are a great natural aphrodisiac!

DatesNight Blindness: The benefits of dates are extensive, and are commonly employed to fight off various conditions affecting the ear, nose, and throat. When the leaves of the date palm are ground into a paste and rubbed on and around the eyes, or when dates are ingested orally, it has been shown to reduce the frequency of night blindness, and this solution is commonly used in rural areas where dates grow as an alternative medicine.

Intoxication: Dates are commonly used as a remedy for alcoholic intoxication. Dates provide quick relief and have a sobering effect in case you feel as though have consumed an uncomfortable amount of alcohol. They can also be used the following morning to prevent severe hangovers. Again, they should be rubbed and soaked overnight for the best results.

Diarrhea: Ripe dates contain potassium, which is known as an effective way of controlling diarrhea. They are also easy to digest, which further helps alleviate the unpredictable nature of chronic diarrhea. The soluble fiber in dates can also help relieve diarrhea, by providing bulk to the bowel movements and promoting normal, healthy functioning of the excretory system.

Abdominal Cancer: Research has pointed towards dates being a legitimate way to reduce the risk and impact of abdominal cancer. They work as a useful tonic for all age groups, and in some cases, they work better than traditional medicines, and are natural, so they don’t have any negative side effects on the human body. They can be quickly and easily digested for a quick boost of energy.

Although dates carry tremendous nutritional values, great care should be taken in their selection because their surface is very sticky, which often attracts various impurities. Therefore, you should only consume dates that are processed and packaged properly. Also, make sure to wash them thoroughly before you eat them, as this will help remove the impurities present on the surface.

A Healthy Pregnancy and Delivery – Further adding to the health benefits of dates, one study performed by researchers at the University of Science and Technology set out to discover how the date fruit impacted labor parameters and delivery outcomes. After studying 69 women for a year and 1 month, the researchers found that “the consumption of date fruit in the last 4 weeks before labour significantly reduced the need for induction and augmentation of labour, and produced a more favorable  but non-significant, delivery outcome. The results warrant a randomised controlled trial.”CLICK TO READ MORE 

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Monday, 16 November 2015


Honey’s scientific super powers contribute to its vastly touted health benefits for the whole body. The healthy natural sweetener offers many nutritional benefits depending on its variety. Raw honey is the unpasteurized version of commonly used honey and only differs in its filtration, which helps extend its shelf life. A tablespoon of raw honey contains 64 calories, is fat-free, cholesterol-free, and sodium-free, says the National Honey Board. Its composition is roughly 80 percent carbohydrates, 18 percent water, and two percent vitamins, minerals, and amino acids.

Typically, honey is sweet but can be cruel to infants. Spores of Clostridium botulinum bacteria — found in dirt and dust, which can contaminate honey — may lead to infant botulism and produce a toxin inside the body that can cause muscle weakness and breathing problems. It's often advised that you wait until the child is 12 months of age to give infants honey; consumption is safe for older adults and kids, since they have a mature digestive system that can handle the spores.

Consume honey responsibly and reap the numerous health benefits of this liquid gold.

1. Alleviates Allergies
Honey’s anti-inflammatory effects and ability to soothe coughs has led to the belief it can also reduce seasonal allergy symptoms. Although there are no clinical studies proving its efficacy, Dr. Matthew Brennecke, a board certified naturopathic doctor practicing at the Rocky Mountain Wellness Center in Fort Collins, Colo., told Medical Daily in an email, "A common theory is that honey acts like a natural vaccine." It contains small amounts of pollen, which if the body is exposed to small amounts of it, it can trigger an immune response that produces antibodies to the pollen. "After repeated exposure, you should build up these antibodies and the body should become accustomed to their presence so that less histamine is released, resulting in a lesser allergic response."

2. Nature's Energy Booster
The benefits of honey go beyond its great taste. A great natural source of carbohydrates which provide strength and energy to our bodies, honey is known for its effectiveness in instantly boosting the performance, endurance and reduce muscle fatigue of athletes. Its natural sugars play an important role in preventing fatigue during exercise. The glucose in honey is absorbed by the body quickly and gives an immediate energy boost, while the fructose is absorbed more slowly providing sustained energy. It is known that honey has also been found to keep levels of blood sugar fairly constant compared to other types of sugar. So, to experience these health benefits of honey, here are a few tips for you:
(i).  Next time before you go for a workout, take a spoon of honey to enable you to go for the extra mile.
(ii). If you are feeling low and lethargic in the morning, instead of reaching out for a can of carbonated energy drink , try honey. Spread it on hot toast or replace the sugar in your tea with it for a refreshing surge of energy.

3. Boosts Memory
Honey’s ability to help the body absorb calcium, according to Brennecke, helps aid brain health. The brain needs calcium in order to process thought and make decisions. “As our populations continue to get older and older, the likelihood of dementia setting in because of poor intake of vitamins and minerals continues to get higher and higher,” he said.
The sweet nectar is loaded in antioxidants that may help prevent cellular damage and loss within the brain. A 2011 study published in Menopause found a daily spoonful of Malaysian honey may boost postmenopausal women’s memory, which can provide an alternative therapy for the hormone-related intellectual decline. After four months of taking 20 grams of honey a day, the women were more likely to have better short-term memory than their counterparts who took hormone pills.

4. Treats Wounds And Burns
Honey is a natural antibiotic that can act both internally and externally. It can be used as a conventional treatment for wounds and burns by disinfecting wounds and sores from major species of bacteria such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A 2005 study published in the British Journal of Surgery found all but one of patients who suffered from wounds and leg ulcers showed remarkable improvement after applying a topical application of honey.

Dr. Diane Radford, a breast surgical oncologist in St. Louis, Mo., told Medical Daily in an email, Manuka honey has antibacterial properties for wound healing. “The precursor for the active antibacterial agent methylglyoxal (MGO) comes from the nectar of mānuka trees. A specialized research unit at the University of Waikato is looking into the conversion to the active product,” she said.

5. Cough Suppressant

Honey can be the all-natural cure when it comes to pesky colds. A persistent cough that won’t go away can easily be remedied with two teaspoons of honey, according to a 2012 study published in the journal Pediatrics. Children between the ages of 1 and 5 with nighttime cough due to colds coughed less frequently when they received two teaspoons of honey 30 minutes before bed.

The golden liquid’s thick consistency helps coat the throat while the sweet taste is believed to trigger nerve endings that protect the throat from incessant coughing. Honey is believed to be as effective as the common cough suppressant ingredient dextromethorphan. It can be used in treating upper respiratory tract infections.

6. Sleep Aid

Honey can be a health aid for sleepless nights. Similar to sugar, honey can cause a rise in insulin and release serotonin — a neurotransmitter that improves mood and happiness. “The body converts serotonin into melatonin, a chemical compound that regulates the length and the quality of sleep,”

Moreover, honey also contains several amino acids, including tryptophan that is commonly associated with turkey. Honey’s steady rise in insulin, according to Brennecke, causes the tryptophan in honey to enter the brain, where it’s then converted into serotonin and then into melatonin, which is a sleep aid. This hormone is responsible for regulating sleep and wake cycles.

7. Treats Dandruff

Honey can bring temporary relief to the scalp by targeting dandruff. In a study, Skin lesions healed within two weeks and patients even showed an improvement in hair loss. The patients did not relapse even after six months of use.
Thanks to honey's antibacterial and antifungal properties, it can also treat seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff, which are often caused by an overgrowth of fungus. Moreover, “honey also has anti-inflammatory properties, which address the redness and itching on the scalp,” Brennecke said.


Friday, 30 October 2015

high cholesterol (Hypercholesterolemia)

What is High Cholesterol?

 Cholesterol is a fat-like material that provides structure for your body's cells. Your liver makes most of the cholesterol your body needs, but you also get some from the foods you eat.The fat and cholesterol you eat are absorbed in the intestine and transported to the liver. The liver converts fat into cholesterol, and releases cholesterol into the bloodstream. There are two main types of cholesterol: low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (the "bad" cholesterol) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (the "good" cholesterol). High levels of LDL cholesterol are linked to atherosclerosis, which is the accumulation of cholesterol-rich fatty deposits in arteries. This can cause arteries to narrow or become blocked, slowing or stopping the flow of blood to vital organs, especially the heart and brain. Atherosclerosis affecting the heart is called coronary artery disease, and it can cause a heart attack. When atherosclerosis blocks arteries that supply blood to the brain, it can cause a stroke

Too much cholesterol can cause a sticky substance (plaque) to build up in your blood vessels. This plaque can block blood vessels and cause heart attacks and strokes.Most people with high cholesterol feel healthy and don't have symptoms. The only way to know if you have high cholesterol is to have your cholesterol checked. You should have your cholesterol regularly checked if: You are a man 35 years or older. You are a woman of any age or a younger man and have risk factors for heart disease or stroke such as: Smoking. Diabetes. High blood pressure. Overweight. A family history of heart attacks or strokes before age 50 in male relatives or before age 60 in female relative.
NOTE:: The Daily value of cholesterol is 300mg or below.

High cholesterol increases the risk of other conditions. Some of these conditions include:

Coronary heart disease
The main risk associated with high cholesterol is coronary heart disease (CHD). Your blood cholesterol level can increase the risk of getting heart disease. If your cholesterol is too high, it builds up on the walls of your arteries. Over time, this buildup (called plaque) causes hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis). This condition causes arteries to become narrowed, slowing blood flow to the heart. The narrowed blood vessels reduce blood flow to the heart. This can result in angina (chest pain) or in a heart attack in cases when a blood vessel is blocked completely.

Stroke can result if the blood supply to part of the brain is reduced. A stroke occurs when a blood vessel that carries oxygen and nutrients to the brain becomes blocked or bursts. When stroke occurs, part of the brain cannot get the blood and oxygen it needs, so it starts to die.

Peripheral vascular disease
High cholesterol also has been linked to peripheral vascular disease (PAD), which refers to diseases of blood vessels outside the heart and brain. In PAD, fatty deposits build up along artery walls and affect blood circulation, mainly in arteries leading to the legs and feet.

Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is another disease linked to high cholesterol because diabetes can affect the different cholesterol levels. Even if blood sugar control is good, people with diabetes tend to have increased triglycerides, decreased HDL, and sometimes increased LDL. This increases the likelihood of developing narrowing in the arteries.

High blood pressure
High blood pressure (hypertension) and high cholesterol also are linked. When the arteries become hardened and narrowed with cholesterol plaque and calcium (atherosclerosis), the heart has to strain much harder to pump blood through them. As a result, blood pressure becomes abnormally high.

Here are some examples of food that u might want to try out,that are low in cholesterol.......

#1: Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fats (Olive Oil, Canola Oil, Peanut Oil, Peanuts, Olives, Avocados)
 Cholesterol Reduction:18%1,2,37
 Substituting saturated animal fats and other high cholesterol foods with healthier fats like olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil, and avocados is the most powerful thing you can do to achieve a drastic reduction in your LDL cholesterol. Specifically a diet high in olive and sunflower oil, that contains 12.9% saturated fat, 15.1% monounsaturated fat, and 7.9% polyunsaturated fat can achieve an 18% reduction in LDL(low density lipoprotein )
#2: Bran (Oat, Rice)
 Cholesterol Reduction:7-14%3-5
 Bran, particularly oat bran, has been proven effective in lowering LDL cholesterol levels. Add bran to hot cereals and bread. Also, eating whole oatmeal every morning, or switching to whole products like brown rice, can help you get more bran in your diet and lower your cholesterol numbers.
#3: Flax Seeds
 Cholesterol Reduction:8-14%6,7
 Up to 50 grams of flax seeds a day has been shown to reduce LDL cholesterol in healthy young adults by up to 8%,6 and 38 grams of flax seeds per day reduced LDL cholesterol by 14% in people with high cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia).7 In both studies the flax seeds where consumed in a muffin or other bread product. Flax seeds are easily incorporated in baked goods, as well as added to hot cereals like oatmeal.
#4: Garlic
 Cholesterol Reduction:9-12%8,9
 Studies have shown that less than half a clove (900mg) of raw garlic a day can lower cholesterol by 9-12%.8,9 Raw garlic is best and can be added to olive oil salad dressings, or as a garnish on soups and sandwiches.
#5: Almonds
 Cholesterol Reduction:7-10%10-12
 Several studes report that eating up to a cup of almonds can reduce cholesterol levels by up to 10%. In a dose response study it was found that half a cup of almonds reduces cholesterol by 5% and 1 cup causes the full 10% reduction.11 As almonds are a high calorie food, it is not recommended that you eat more that a cup. Almonds are great as a snack, or as an addition to breakfast cereals like oatmeal.
#6: Lycopene Foods
 Cholesterol Reduction:0-17%13,14
 Lycopene is a carotenoid pigment responsible for giving fruits and vegetables their red color and is found in tomatoes, watermelon, and various other high lycopene foods. Studies are conflicting as to whether lycopene reduces LDL cholesterol or not. Some studies report a 10-17% reduction13,14 while other studies find no difference.15,16 Despite this difference, lycopene is thought to generally promote heart health whether it lowers LDL cholesterol or not.
#7: Walnuts and Pistachios
 Cholesterol Reduction:10%17-21
 Numerous studies report a reduction in cholesterol with consumption of walnuts or pistachios. This is esepcially true when the fats from the nuts replace consumption of other high cholesterol fats. Consuming around 30 grams of walnuts, or having the nuts be about 20-30% of total caloric intake is necessary to achieve the cholesterol lowering benefits.
#8: Whole Barley
 Cholesterol Reduction:7-10%22,23
 Like the bran from oats and rice, barley reduces cholesterol, particularly when it is used as a substitute for wheat products.22 Barley can easily substitute for wheat in the form of barley noodles, barley flour, or whole pearl barley.
#9: Dark Chocolate and Plant Sterols
 Cholesterol Reduction:2-5%24,25
 The plant sterols and cocoa flavanols in dark non-milk chocolate have been shown to reduce cholesterol by 2-5%. Further, plant sterols (phytosterols), found in all plants, and particularly plant oils like corn oil and soybean oil have been shown to lower LDL cholesterol by up to 16%.25 However, this reduction is largley due to inhibiting absorption of cholesterol, and would not have a large effect if you consumed little or no cholesterol.
#10: Green Tea
 Cholesterol Reduction:2-5%26
 Green tea has long been a staple in East Asia where it is believed to wash oil (fat) out of the body. Studies suggest this may be true as.  green tea can lower cholesterol by 2-5%.26 Green tea without sugar also has few calories (typically less than 10) and can make a great substitute for a variety of beverages.